• Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
  • Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation
  • Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
  • Receipt and Payment Account
  • Income and Expenditure Account
  • Balance Sheet
  • Some Peculiar Items
  • Income and Expenditure Account based on Trial Balance
  • Incidental Trading Activity
  • Accounting for Partnership : Basic Concepts
  • Nature of Partnership
  • Partnership Deed
  • Special Aspects of Partnership Accounts
  • Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
  • Distribution of Profit among Partners
  • Guarantee of Profit to a Partner
  • Past Adjustments
  • Final Accounts
  • Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Admission of a Partner
  • Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
  • Admission of a New Partner
  • New Profit Sharing Ratio
  • Sacrificing Ratio
  • Goodwill
  • Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses
  • Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
  • Adjustment of Capitals
  • Change in Profit Sharing Ratio among the Existing Partners
  • Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Retirement/Death of a Partner
  • Ascertaining the Amount Due to Retiring/Deceased Partner
  • Gaining Ratio
  • Treatment of Goodwill
  • Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
  • Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses
  • Disposal of Amount Due to Retiring Partner
  • Adjustment of Partner’s Capital
  • Death of a Partner
  • Dissolution of Partnership Firm
  • Dissolution of Partnership
  • Dissolution of a Firm
  • What are the Differences between Dissolution of Partnership and Dissolution of Firm?
  • Settlement of Accounts
  • Accounting Treatment

Art History

Principles of Art Historical methodology – Formalism; Iconology; Semiotic analysis; Psychoanalytic method in Art History; Gestalt Theory of Visual Perception; impact of theories in class and gender on the discipline; Deconstruction and its transformative role for Art History; contemporary shifts towards a “New” Art History; art history as an evolving discipline in India from colonial period to post-Independent era; introduction of curatorial practices – confluence of museum, gallery and art history; aesthetic theories and their relevance to art historical/critical analysis of the visual object


Indian Iconography:

Antiquity of image worship in India and principles of iconometry; iconography and its development through Vedic to Brahmanical images: Indra, Surya, Agni, Varuna, Kubera, Yama, Ashta-dikpalas, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, the Saptamtrikas, Kartikeya, Ganesha, and river goddesses (Ganga and Yamuna) etc. Buddhist iconography: the evolution of the Buddha image (including Dhyani Buddhas, Manushi Buddhas, etc.), Bodhisattva (Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri, Maitreya etc.), Tara, Kubera etc. Jain iconography: Tirthankara (Adinath, Parshvanath, Neminath, Mahavira), Bahubali; Ambika, Saraswati, Yaksha and Yakshi (in the Jain context) etc.


Indian Sculpture (pre-modern developments):

A comprehensive study of early Indian sculpture from Indus valley civilization to the post-Gupta period – dynasties like Maurya, Sunga, Satavahana, Kushana, Gupta, Pala-Sena, Chandela, Solanki, Parmar, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Ganga, Chola, Hoysala, etc..


Indian Architecture:

Early Indian architecture (with reference to ancient literature and shilpa texts): Indus valley; Maurya Origin and development of the stupa: Bharhut, Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati Evolution of rock-cut caves (Lomas-rishi, Khandagiri, Udaigiri, Bhaja, Karle, Kanheri, Ajanta, Elephanta, Ellora and Mamallapuram) Evolution of temple architecture & their classification into Nagara, Dravida and Vessara categories: Gupta temples; Orissan developments (Parashurameshwara, Mukteshvara, Lingaraj and Konark); Chandella, Pratihar, Parmara and Solanki temple styles; Chalukyan, Rastrakuta and Hoysala temple architecture (including Virupaksha, Kaliashnatha in Ellora, Hoyasaleshvara; Pallava monolithic and structural temples; Chola temples; Martand Sun temple in Kashmir Imperial architecture during Sultanate & Mughal rule: features of provincial Indo-Islamic architecture; Mughal architecture (Humayun’s Tomb, Fatehpur Sikari and Sikandra, Taj Mahal, Red Fort and Jama Masjid) Colonial & Modern architecture: Le Corbusier, Charles Correa, B.V. Doshi and others.


Indian painting (pre-modern developments):

A comprehensive study of pre-historic painting, wall paintings at Ajanta and later mural tradition (Bagh, Badami, Ellora, Sittanvasal, Lepakshi, Kerala murals such as Mattancherry palace etc.); manuscript painting & the miniature traditions: Eastern and Western Indian manuscripts; Sultanate painting (the Chaurpanchasika and pre-Mughal schools), Mughal miniature painting from Akbar to Shah Jahan; Rajasthani miniature painting; Pahari miniature painting ; Deccani painting (Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda).


Modern Indian Art:

Modernity in Indian Art; Ravi Varma; E.B. Havell, A.K. Coomaraswamy, Stella Kramrisch, Abanindranath Tagore and the “Bengal School”; Nandalal Bose, Benodebehari Mukherjee and Ramkinkar Baij; Amrita Sher-Gil; Jamini Roy; the 1940s artists’ collectives: Calcutta Group (Kolkata), Progressive Artists Group (Mumbai), Delhi Shilpi Chakra (Delhi), Cholamandala Artists’ Village (Chennai); Indigenism and the trends in 1950s and 1960s; trends in abstraction since the 1970s; the 20th & 21st century contemporary trends towards globalization (including the introduction of installation, performance, digital/video etc.) with a study of select individual artists


Western Art:

Overview of Western art from prehistory to the present: Prehistoric art, art in ancient Egypt, Aegean art, Greece and Rome; Early-Christian and Byzantine art; Romanesque and Gothic art; Renaissance painting and sculpture; Mannerism and Baroque painting and sculpture; Rococo, Neoclassicism and Romanticism; Modern movements including Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impression, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, Constructivism, Futurism, Dada and Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Op art, Pop art; Post-modern developments including, Minimal and Conceptual Art, Fluxus movement, Arte Povera, Body art, Land and Environment Art, Graffiti, Process art, Performance art, Installation, Neo-figuration, Happening, Feminist and Gay art.


Art of Ancient Near-East:

Visual expression from ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, Assyria); art in Achaemanid and Sassanian Persia. Art of Far East, Central and South-East Asia: Introduction to cultural exchange between India and these ancient cultures and the emergence of distinctive visual expressions: ancient China (Shang, Zhou, and Han dynasties); Buddhist sculpture from upto Tang dynasty; Six Dynasties and Tang painting; Chinese landscape tradition from Song to Qing; Japan (Haniwa pottery figures; Buddhist sculptures from Nara to Kamakura periods); late Heian and Kamakura painting including the Tale of Genji and the Heiji Monogatari Emaki scrolls; Japanese scroll painting in the Momoyama & Edo periods; ukiyo-e woodblock prints from the Edo period); Tibet (Buddhist icons and the thangka painting tradition); Nepal (Buddhist and Brahmanical sculptures and painting); Sri Lanka (sculpture and painting – including Sigiriya murals); Cambodia (sculpture and architecture, especially Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom); Java (sculpture and architecture, including the Dieng plateau candi-s, the Borobudur stupa, and Prambanan complex); Buddhist art in Myanmar/Burma and Siam/Thailand etc..


Indian Folk and Tribal Art:

Phad, Pichhwai and Kavad painting (Rajasthan); Pata painting in Bengal and Orissa; Madhubani/Mithila painting (Bihar), Warli painting (Maharastra), Pithora painting (Gujarat); Dhokra bronze casting; votive terracotta objects (including votive horses offered across various states in India); wood carving and wooden dolls (Kondapalli, Karnataka, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh); leather puppets (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka); traditional and modern textiles and functional objects (textiles of Banaras, Kanchipuram, Gujrat, Orissa, and the North-Eastern states; tie-and-dye fabrics; embroidery; kantha, Phulkari, Chamba rumal; metal-ware including Bidri, repousse, enamelling; jewellery including jade, beads etc.

Applied Art

Elements & principles of design

The term ‘Graphic Design’ and William Addison Diggings; Basics of Graphic Design/Applied Art: Image and Text; Developing message to promote product. Terms and terminologies relevant to advertising Industry: Understanding of the ‘Portmanteau’ terms such as, Advertorials, Info graphics, Infomercials, Edutainment etc.


Innovations and Movements

History of advertising in India and rest of the world; Calligraphy, Advent of moveable types, Typefaces, fronts and families; Architecture and anatomy of letters; Classifications of types and size, Early Typographers and study of traditional hand writing and script like Indian manuscripts, Persian, Chinese, Japanese and Roman etc. Development of printing processes in India and rest of the world: letterpress, gravure, silk-screen and Offset etc. Movements that influenced graphic design: Art Nouveau, The Art of War), The ISMs of Art: Futurism, Dada, De Stijl, & Constructivism, Art and Craft movement, Bauhaus movement and new typography, history of graphic design and the nature of advertising history, Illustrated Modernism & Psychedelia, New Wave and Post Modernism, Digital Expressionism & Postscript, The Digital Future.


Advertising forms and media

Print, outdoor, electronic and new media advertising; Media Options: newspapers and magazines, radio, TV and cinema, posters, Direct Mail, Ambient and Guerrilla advertising, digital and online advertising. Viral Advertising. Boom in Outdoor advertising: billboards and transits, innovative Materials and advantages. Emergence of Poster as a ‘new genre of art’: Study of posters with reference to Poland, Japan, UK and America and Bolshevik Russia. Placards and propagandas, Protest and Wartime posters, Subway culture. Cultural frames of advertising phases: Idolatry, Iconology, Narcissism, and Transition from ‘Totemism’ (the fourth cultural frame) to ‘Mise-en-Scene’ (Fifth Frame); Evolution from Traditional to Industrial to Consumer society & development of communications media. Future of advertising and advertising agencies. Blurring the lines between advertising and entertainment The impact of Graphic Design with advance technology; Re-defining “Graphic design”; Attributes needed by the modern designers.


Design, campaign and packaging

Designing of logo, rebus, symbol, mark and corporate identity; stories behind the development of most well-known symbols/identities the world; Brands, rebranding and brand positioning; Precursors and prophets of advertising theories and principles; Designing events –Event Mascots and other global entertainments, films and festivals. Campaign planning and strategy: the client, market research, account planning, creative brief. Developing visuals and messages for print-ads (newspaper and magazines), Direct Mail, posters, outdoor advertising (billboards and transits), merchandising, show-windows and supermarket items (Point of sales / Point of Purchase items, dispensers, stands, stalls etc.) Media selection, Approaches& the target audience. Innovations in media. New technologies, TV graphics, multimedia presentation, web-page designing and understanding of rector and vector software; Internet – its use in advertising products and services, net marketing. Prepress, Printing presses, and Post-press: manipulations of pixels and resolutions, colour corrections, knowledge of computer-to-plate graphic reproductions, offset printing, Finishing and Converting. Additive and subtractive colours, four colour printing mechanics, Spot Colours and Lainations, UVs etc. Design of packaging, merchandising and novelties.

Advertising corporate and new trends

Origin and growth of advertising agencies: Role and responsibilities of a Graphic designer. Creative core: Creative/Art Director, Visualizer, and Copywriter, interaction in developing concepts. World’s leading Advertising Corporates, Multinationals and Indian scenario: Indian Advertising Agencies with all India branches. Ad-Gurus or remarkable Ad-Men and epoch making advertising campaigns by them. Highest honours, Awards in the advertising creativity and extraordinary contribution. Famous designers of the world on branding and corporate identity design, Film titles. Interdisciplinary participation approach with disciplines of art, collaboration and internship with industries and corporates. Computers and its role in creating new visual effects (Photography, Digital Graphics, Film titles, Multimedia presentations, Image Editing, Web Graphics and types of online Advertising, Web page designing); Importance of market research in advertising. Print media vs. Electronic Media.

Obstetrics and Gynae

 Gynecology:
o Oncology (most important): Staging With Treatment‐Endometrium, cervix, ovary
o Menstrual Physiology: Normal phases, Abnormalities, especially Primary Amenorrhea
o PCOS: criteria, pathophysiology, Mx
o Contraception
o Infertility: approach‐based Qs
o STI: Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomonas, Candidiasis
o Mullerian Anomalies: Classification (recent update), MRKH, AIS
o Obstetrics
o Physiological Changes In Pregnancy: One liners, quantitative values
o Systemic Conditions In Pregnancy: GDM, PIH,Rh isoimmunization, Anemia most important
o Interventions: Amniocentesis, Chorionic Villous Sampling
o GTN, Ectopic Pregnancy, Abortions
o Operative: C Sec/ Ventouse/ Forceps
o Stages Of Labour, Partogram, NST: Recent trend
o PPH: Management algorithm with drug dosages must
o Pelvis Types, Fetal Skull Diameters

55 Labour Welfare/Personnel Management/Industrial Relations/ Labour and Social Welfare/Human Resource Management

Unit – I

Principles and Practices of Management: Development of management Thought, Contributions of Taylor, Fayol, Mayo, Mary Parker Follett and C.I. Barnard. Behavioural Approach, Systems Approach, Quantitative Approach and Contingency Approach. Function of Management: Planning and Decision Making, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Controlling, Coordinating.


Unit – II

Human Resource Management: Conceptual framework, Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Recruitment, Selection, Placement, Induction, Training and Development, Performance Management, Job Evaluation, Compensation Management, Employee Benefits and Incentives, Managing Career. New Trends in HRM: Changing environment of HRM and contemporary challenges, Emerging HRM Concepts.


Unit – III

Human Resource Development (HRD): Concepts, Assumptions, Values, HRD Mechanisms, Action – research Model, HRD Culture and Climate, HRD Interventions, HR Accounting and Audit, Consultant – client relationship, Knowledge Management, Human Resource Information System. International Human Resource Management (IHRM): Organisational context of IHRM, IHRM and Sustainable Business, Functions of IHRM, Cross – Cultural Studies, Cultural Diversity, Transnational Organisations, IHRM models.


Unit – IV

Organisational Behaviour: Concept, Scope, Nature of human behavior, Personality, Perception, Learning, Attitude, Motivation, Interpersonal Behaviour, Group Dynamics, Leadership, Communication, Power and Authority, Stress, Organisational Change and Development.


Unit – V

Industrial Relations: Concept, Scope, Evolution, Approaches, Actors and Models, Conflict and cooperation, Bi-partitism, Tri-partitism, Collective Bargaining, Workers’ Participation in Management, Grievance Handling and Disciplinary Action, Code of Conduct, Industrial Relations in changing scenario, Employers’ organisations. Trade Unions: Concepts, Evolution, Problems of trade unions in India, Recognition, The Trade Unions Act, 1926. Emerging role of trade unions in India.


Unit – VI

Industrial Disputes: Factors, Forms, Trends, Prevention and Settlement, Role of State and Central Labour Administration, Strikes and Lockouts. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946. The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.


Unit – VII

Labour Legislation:

Objectives, Principles, Classification and Evolution. International Labour Organisation, Social Justice and Labour Legislation, Indian Constitution and Labour Laws.

 The Factories Act, 1948.

 The Mines Act, 1952.

 The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of employment and conditions of service) Act, 1979.

 The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970.

 The Building and other Construction workers (Regulation of employment and conditions of service) Act, 1996.

 The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.


Unit – VIII


Concept, Types, Factors influencing wages, Wage Theories and Wage Differentials

 The Minimum Wages Act, 1948.

 The Payment of Wages Act, 1936.

 The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965.

 The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.

 The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.

 The Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952.


Unit – IX

Labour Welfare:

Concept, Scope, Types, Theories and Principles, Industrial Health and Hygiene, Industrial Accidents and safety, Occupational Diseases Social Security: Concept and Scope, Social Assistance and Social assurance.


Unit – X

Labour Market:

Features, Demand and Supply of Labour, Nature and Composition of Indian Labour Force, Unemployment and Underemployment, Types of Labour Market, Characteristics of Indian Labour Market, New Dynamics of Labour Market in India, Economic Systems and Labor Market, Problems of Labour in India.

12 Home Science


1. Food science and nutrition.

2. Properties of food – physical and chemical properties

3. Quality evaluation of foods- objectives and subjective.

4. Effects of cooking and processing techniques on nutritional components and other physical parameters, food preservation and application.

5. Food pigments and additives.

6. Food standards, microbiological safety of food, HACCP, food packaging.

7. Perspectives of food service-menu planning, food cost analysis.

8. New product development – nano technology

9. Food service management of institutional level-hospital, educational institutions, social and special institutions

10. Research methods-fundamental issues, concept, need relevance, scope and ethics in research



1. Food groups – balanced diet, food pyramid, macro and micro nutrition.

2. Nutrients-role of nutrients in the body, nutrient deficiencies and requirements for Indians.

3. Public health nutrition

4. Nutrition through life span-physiological changes, growth and development from conception to adolescence, nutritional needs and dietary guidelines for adequate nutrition through life cycle, nutrition concerns.

5. Community nutrition, sports nutrition, nutrition in emergencies and disasters.

6. Nutritional assessment-methods and techniques.

7. Nutritional intervention-national nutrition policies and programmes, food and nutrition security.

8. Clinical and therapeutic nutrition.

9. Diet counseling and management.

10. Research methods- research designs, principles and purpose of research



1. Textile terminologies- fibre, yarn, weave, fabric etc., classification of fibers, yarns and weaves, Identification of fibres and weaves.

2. Manufacturing process of major natural and manmade fibres, properties and their end uses.

3. Different methods of fabric construction-woven, knitted and non woven fabrics, their properties and end uses.

4. Textiles finishes-classification, processing and purposes of finishes.

5. Dyeing and printing-classification, method of block printing, tie and dye, batik, roller printing, screen printing, discharge, heat transfer printing and digitized printing.

6. Traditional textiles of India-embroidered textiles, printed textiles, woven textiles, dyed textiles of various regions in India. Identification on the basis of fibre content, technique, motif, colour and designed.

7. Textile Testing and quality control-need of testing, sampling method, techniques of testing fibres, yarn, fabrics and garments. Testing of colour-fastness, shrinkage, pilling and GSM of fabrics.

8. Textile and environment-banned dyes, eco-friendly textiles, contamination and effluent treatment, Eco-label and eco marks.

9. Recent developments in textiles and apparels- nano textiles, technical textiles, occupational clothing, zero waste designing, up cycling and recycling.

10. Research methods-types of research, descriptive, survey, historical, qualitative, quantitative, analytical and action research



1. Body measurements-procedure, need, figure types and anthropometry.

2. Equipments and tools used for manufacturing garments-advancements and attachments used for sewing machine. Types of machines used and their parts.

3. Elements and principles of design and its application to apparel. Illustrations and parts of garments.

4. Fashion-Terminologies, fashion cycle, fashion theories, fashion adoption, fashion forecasting and factors affecting fashion.

5. Pattern making-drafting, draping and flat pattern making techniques, pattern alteration and dart manipulation techniques.

6. Apparel manufacturing-terminology used, seams, techniques and machines used, process of fabric to apparel manufacture.

7. Apparel Quality testing-Quality standards and specification, Quality parameters and defects of fabrics and garments.

8. Care and maintenance of clothing-principles of washing, laundry agents, storage techniques case labels and symbols.

9. Selection of clothing for different age groups. Selection of fabrics for different and uses.

10. Research methods-hypothesis testing, types and scope



1. Management-concept, approaches, management of time, energy, money, space, motivating factors, motivation theories, decision making.

2. Functions of management-planning, supervision, controlling, organizing, evaluation, family life cycle-stages, availability and use of resources.

3. Resources-classification, characteristics, factors affecting use, resource conservation, time management, work simplification techniques, classes of change, fatigue and its management.

4. Management of natural resources-land, forest, water, air, water harvesting, municipal solid waste management, concept of sustainable development, SDGs.

5. Money management-family income, types, supplementation, budgeting, household accounts, family savings and investment, tax implications.

6. Human resource management- functions, need, human resource development-challenges, functions, manpower planning, training need assessment, training methodologies, training evaluation.

7. Consumer-definition, role, rights and responsibilities, consumer behavior, consumer problems, education and empowerment.

8. Consumer protection- consumer organization, cooperatives, alternative redressal, standardization, standard marks, quality control, buying aids, consumer legislation.

9. Entrepreneurship-concept, process, barriers, entrepreneurial motivation, challenges, enterprise setting, project planning and appraisal, enterprise management.

10. Research methods-sampling techniques, types of sampling, sampling procedures, probability and non probability sampling



1. Design fundamentals – elements of art, principles of design, principles of composition.

2. Colour – dimensions of colour, psychological effects of colour, colour schemes, factors affecting use of colour.

3. Space planning and design-housing need and important, principles of planning spaces, types of house plans, economy in construction, planning for different income groups.

4. Building regulations-norms and standards, zoning, housing for special groups and areas, housing finance.

5. Housing and environment- building materials- impact on environment, green rating systems, energy efficiency in buildings, energy auditing, indices of indoor comfort.

6. Energy as a resource- conventional and non- conventional sources, renewable /non-renewable energy, energy management, national efforts on energy conservation.

7. Product design – design thinking process, diffusion and innovation, design communication, ergonomic considerations.

8. Ergonomics – significance, scope, anthropometry, man, machine, environment relationship, factors affecting physiological cost of work, body mechanics, functional design of work place, time and motion study, energy studies.

9. Furniture and furnishing – historical perspectives, architectural styles, contemporary tends, wall finishes, window and window treatments.

10. Research methods-selection and preparation of tools for data collection-questionnaire, interview, observation, measuring scales, ranking and measurement, reliability and validity of tools



1. Principles of growth and development, care during pregnancy and pre-natal and neonatal development.

2. Theories of human development and behavior.

3. Early childhood care and education – activities to promote holistic development.

4. Influence of family, peers, school, community and culture on personality development.

5. Children and persons with special needs, care and support, special education, prevention of disabilities, rehabilitation.

6. Children at risk-child labour, street children, children of destitute, orphans, child abuse and trafficking.

7. Adolescence and youth: changes, challenges and programs to promote optimal development.

8. Adulthood, characteristics, changing roles and responsibilities in early and middle adulthood.

9. Aging-physical and psychological changes and care needs.

10. Research methods-types of variables and their selection.



1. Dynamics of marriage and family relationships.

2. Family welfare-approaches, programmes and challenges, role in national development.

3. Domestic violence, marital disharmony, conflict, resolution of conflict.

4. Parent education, positive parenting, community education.

5. Family disorganization, single parent families.

6. Family studies-family in crisis, family therapy, initiatives for child development.

7. Human rights, rights of children, rights of women, status of women, gender roles.

8. Guidance and counseling- across life span and for care givers.

9. Health and well being across life span development.

10. Research methods- data collection and classification, coding, tabulation, inferential and descriptive statistics.



1. Basics of communication- nature, characteristics, functions, process, models, elements, principles, barriers, perception, persuasion and empathy, types of communication, levels (settings) of communication transactions, process of listening.

2. Communication systems and communication theories- human interaction theories, mass communication theories, message design theories, communication systems, culture and communication.

3. Concept of development- theories, models, measurement and indicators of development.

4. Concept of development- communication models and approaches, diffusion and innovation, mass media, social marketing.

5. Role of communication in development- need and importance, development journalism, writing for development-print, radio, television and internet.

6. Concerns of development communication- gender, health, environment, sustainability, human rights, population, literacy, rural and tribal development.

7. Advocacy and behavior change communication- concept, theories, models, approaches, application and challenges.

8. Traditional, modern and new media for development – folk forms of songs, art, dance, theatre, puppetry, advertisement, cinema, ICTs for development-community radio, participatory video, social media and mobile phones.

9. Organisation/agencies/institutes working for development communication- international/national/state and local.

10. Research methods-analysis of data through parametric and non parametric tests.



1. Historical perspectives of extension–genesis of extension education and extension systems in India and other countries, objectives of extension education and extension service, philosophy and principles of extension programme development.

2. Programme management- need assessment, situation analysis, planning, organization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

3. Extension methods and materials- interpersonal, small and large group methods, audiovisual aids-need, importance, planning, classification, preparation and field testing, use and evaluation of audio-visual materials.

4. Curriculum development and planning for extension education and development activities, Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives and learning.

5. Non-Formal, adult and lifelong education-historical perspectives, concept, theories, approaches, scope, methods and materials used, challenges of implementation and evaluation, issues to be addressed.

6. Training, skill development and capacity building for human resource development-methods of training, entrepreneurship development.

7. Community development- perspectives, approaches, community organization, leadership, support structures for community development, Panchyati raj institutions, NGOs and community based organisations.

8. People’s participation and stakeholders’ perspectives, Participatory Learning and Action-methods and techniques.

9. Development programmes in India for urban, rural and tribal population groups- programmes for nutrition, health, education, wage and self employment, women’s development, skill development, sanitation and infrastructure.

10. Research methods-scientific report writing, presentation of data, interpretation and discussion.

Drawing and Painting


Fundamental elements of drawing and painting. Imagery in visual arts. Origin and development of art (visual). Classification of Arts. Conceptual and Visual reality.

Relevance of study of aesthetics in painting: The early philosophical thoughts in Indian Culture. Nature and Function of Art in the society. Indian aesthetics: Concept of Ras-Sutra and its commentaries: The Theory of Rasa, Sadharanikarana, Dhvani, Alankara, Auchitya,etc; shilpa texts like the Chitrasutra of the Vishnudharmottara Purana, Shadanga from Yashodhara’s commentary on the Kamasutra, etc.; A.K. Coomaraswamy and Rabindranath Tagore’s contributions towards Indian aesthetics Western Aesthetics: Theory of imitation and representation, catharsis (Plato and Aristotle). Aesthetical views of Kant, Hegel, Croce, Tolstoy, Baumgarten, Schopenhauer, Clive Bell, Roger Fry, I. A. Richards, Susanne Langer, Sigmund Freud, and George Santayana.


History of Drawing and Painting:

Indian painting: Prehistoric Paintings in India, Wall paintings of Ajanta, Bagh, Badami and Sittanavasal.Manuscript painting tradition Pala and Western Indian.Tradition of Miniature paintings: Pre-Mughal, Mughal, Rajasthani, Pahari (Basohli, Guler-Kangra and Garhwal) and Deccani painting (Ahmendagar, Bijapur & Golconda). Company School of painting. Advent of Modernism with Raja Ravi Varma, Bengal School: Abanindranath Tagore and his disciples, Nandalal Bose and his disciples. Breakthrough in Indian painting: Contribution of Amrita Sher-Gil. Progressive artist group – Bombay, Calcutta Group – Calcutta, Shilpi Chakra – Delhi, Chola mandala – Madras and Baroda School – Baroda. In Indian Art the Major trends of Indigenous since 1970, Contemporary painting and eminent artists: Impressionistic, Expressionistic, Abstraction, Decoration, Neo-Tantric, Figurative and Non-figurative, Surrealistic, Representational and Non-representational painting. Western Painting: Prehistoric paintings of France and Spain. Egyptian, Aegean Art, Greece and Roman painting. Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Classicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Fauvism & Symbolism, Cubism, Futurism, Dada & Surrealism Expressionism, Abstract Expressionism, Op and Pop Art, Minimal Art & Post Modern Trends, New Media, Installation and Illusory Hyper Realism, etc.


Material and Method:

Application of Materials, Support in Painting (Canvas, Paper, Wall surface, Panels), Mix media. Oil painting and its technique – Traditional and Non-traditional. Techniques of Wall paintings – Traditional (Fresco Secco and Buono) and Modern. Water color painting, wash technique, pastel and crayon, Acrylic color, color preparation and technical aspect of pigments. Color theory and color harmony.


Art Schools and Art Education:

The introduction of formal training in art through Colonial Art Schools, and the transition from Colonial understanding to Post-Independent art education in the art schools at Chennai, Kolkata, Lahore, Mumbai, Delhi, Lucknow, Jaipur; art promotion and education through art academies; rethinking institutional art education at Santiniketan and Baroda; role of art galleries and museums in art education; increase in curatorial venture as a collaboration between the museum, galleries and practicing artists and historians; role of art journals and magazines in the dialogue between viewing public and the artist.


  • Diversity in Living World Details:
  • What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
  • Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
  • Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
  • Structural Organisation in Animals and PlantsDetails:
  • Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
  • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
  • Cell Structure and Function Details:
  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
  • B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
  • Plant Physiology Details:-
  • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
  • Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  • Human Physiology Details:-
  • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
  • Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
  • Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
  • Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in human scentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
  • Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
  • (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)


Unit – I

Conceptual Framework of Comparative Literature

1. The Emergence of Comparative Literature

2. Difference/ Alterity and the Ethics of Plurality

3. Limitations of the Idea of National Literature

4. Theories of Interpretation


Unit – II

Literary Historiography

1. Sources of Literary History: Oral, Manuscriptal, Scriptal and Virtual

2. Approaches to Literary History: Integrationist and other models

3. Problems of Periodization


Unit – III

History of Comparative Literature

1. History of Comparative Literature : French, German, Russian and Tel Aviv Schools

2. Comparative Literature in India: From Tagore to the Present

3. World Literature: From Goethe to the Present

4. “The State of the Discipline” Reports


Unit – IV

Translation in Comparative Context

1. History and Politics of Translation

2. Translation as Reception

3. Problems and Promises of Translation in Multilingual Situations

4. Untranslatability and Silence


Unit – V

Poetics and Literary Theory

1. Indian Poetics: Sanskrit and Tamil

2. Perso-Arabic Traditions

3. Western Classical Literary Theory


Unit – VI

Indian Literature –I

1. Classical – Sanskrit, Tamil, Pali and other literary traditions

2. Medieval –Formations of Language-Literature (bhasha) Traditions in India;Bhakti, Santand Sufi Literature

3. Contact with West Asian, South-east Asian and South Asian literary traditions


Unit – VII

Indian Literature – II

1. Modernity as a concept

2. Colonial Modernity: Transactions with Western Forms and Literary Traditions

3. Modernity as Discourse: Multiple Modernisms in the Context of Various Language-Literatures

4. Discontents of Modernity: Literatures of Women, Adivasis, Dalits, Minorities and others


Unit – VIII

Literary Modes, Genres and Themes

1. The “literary” as a convention

2. Mode and Performativity: Tragedy, Epic and Novel

3. Genres: Theories; Taxonomy : Generic Markers and Transformations

4. Themes: Motifs, Myth, Archetypes


Unit – IX

Interdisciplinarity and Intermediality

1. Literature and Other Arts: Texts Across Mediums

2. Literary Studies and Other Disciplines


Unit – X

Literary Dialogues

1. Intertextuality, Parody and Pastiche

2. Re-writing in Diachronic and Synchronic Frames

3. Adaptation, Appropriation and Assimilation


Unit-I: Fundamentals of Environmental Sciences

Definition, Principles and Scope of Environmental Science. Structure and composition of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Laws of thermodynamics, heat transfer processes, mass and energy transfer across various interfaces, material balance. Meteorological parameters – pressure, temperature, precipitation, humidity, mixing ratio, saturation mixing ratio, radiation and wind velocity, adiabatic lapse rate, environmental lapse rate. Wind roses.Interaction between Earth, Man and Environment. Biogeographic provinces of the world and agro-climatic zones of India. Concept of sustainable development. Natural resources and their assessment. Remote Sensing and GIS: Principles of remote sensing and GIS. Digital image processing and ground truthing. Application of remote sensing and GIS in land cover/land use planning and management (urban sprawling, vegetation study, forestry, natural resource), waste management and climate change. Environmental education and awareness. Environmental ethics.


Unit-II: Environmental Chemistry

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry: Classification of elements, Stoichiometry, Gibbs’ energy, chemical potential, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibria, solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, radioisotopes. Composition of air. Particles, ions and radicals in the atmosphere. Chemical speciation. Chemical processes in the formation of inorganic and organic particulate matters, thermochemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere, Oxygen and Ozone chemistry. Photochemical smog. Hydrological cycle. Water as a universal solvent. Concept of DO, BOD and COD. Sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration, pH and Redox potential (Eh). Inorganic and organic components of soils. Biogeochemical cycles – nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and sulphur. Toxic chemicals: Pesticides and their classification and effects. Biochemical aspects of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr) and metalloids (As, Se). CO, O3, PAN, VOC and POP. Carcinogens in the air. Principles of analytical methods: Titrimetry, Gravimetry, Bomb Calorimetry, Chromatography (Paper Chromatography, TLC, GC and HPLC), Flame photometry, Spectrophotometry (UV-VIS, AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS), Electrophoresis, XRF, XRD, NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, SEM, TEM.


Unit-III: Environmental Biology

Ecology as an inter-disciplinary science. Origin of life and speciation. Human Ecology and Settlement. Ecosystem Structure and functions: Structures – Biotic and Abiotic components. Functions – Energy flow in ecosystems, energy flow models, food chains and food webs. Biogeochemical cycles, Ecological succession. Species diversity, Concept of ecotone, edge effects, ecological habitats and niche. Ecosystem stability and factors affecting stability. Ecosystem services. Basis of Ecosystem classification. Types of Ecosystem: Desert (hot and cold), forest, rangeland, wetlands, lotic, lentic, estuarine (mangrove), Oceanic. Biomes: Concept, classification and distribution. Characteristics of different biomes: Tundra, Taiga, Grassland, Deciduous forest biome, Highland Icy Alpine Biome, Chapparal, Savanna, Tropical Rain forest. Population ecology: Characteristics of population, concept of carrying capacity, population growth and regulations. Population fluctuations, dispersion and metapopulation. Concept of ‘r’ and ‘k’ species. Keystone species. Community ecology: Definition, community concept, types and interaction – predation, herbivory, parasitism and allelopathy. Biological invasions. Biodiversity and its conservation: Definition, types, importance of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity. Concept and basis of identification of ‘Hotspots’; hotspots in India. Measures of biodiversity. Strategies for biodiversity conservation: in situ, ex situ and in vitro conservation. National parks, Sanctuaries, Protected areas and Sacred groves in India. Concepts of gene pool, biopiracy and bio-prospecting. Concept of restoration ecology. Extinct, Rare, Endangered and Threatened flora and fauna of India. Concept of Industrial Ecology. Toxicology and Microbiology: Absorption, distribution and excretion of toxic agents, acute and chronic toxicity, concept of bioassay, threshold limit value, margin of safety, therapeutic index, biotransformation. Major water borne diseases and air borne microbes. Environmental Biotechnology: Bioremediation – definition, types and role of plants and microbes for in situ and ex situ remediation. Bioindicators, Biofertilizers, Biofuels and Biosensors.


Unit-IV: Environmental Geosciences

Origin of earth. Primary geochemical differentiation and formation of core, mantle, crust, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Concept of minerals and rocks. Formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Controls on formation of landforms – tectonic including plate tectonic and climatic. Concept of steady state and equilibrium, Energy budget of the earth. Earth’s thermal environment and seasons. Coriolis force, pressure gradient force, frictional force, geo-strophic wind field, gradient wind. Climates of India, western disturbances, Indian monsoon, droughts, El Nino, La Nina. Concept of residence time and rates of natural cycles. Geophysical fields. Weathering including weathering reactions, erosion, transportation and deposition of sediments. Soil forming minerals and process of soil formation, Identification and characterization of clay minerals, Soil physical and chemical properties, soil types and climate control on soil formation, Cation exchange capacity and mineralogical controls. Geochemical classification of elements, abundance of elements in bulk earth, crust, hydrosphere and biosphere. Partitioning of elements during surficial geologic processes, Geochemical recycling of elements. Paleoclimate. Distribution of water in earth, hydrology and hydrogeology, major basins and groundwater provinces of India, Darcy’s law and its validity, groundwater fluctuations, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater tracers, land subsidence, effects of excessive use of groundwater, groundwater quality. Pollution of groundwater resources, Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh-saline water. Natural resource exploration and exploitation and related environmental concerns. Historical perspective and conservation of non-renewable resources. Natural Hazards: Catastrophic geological hazards – floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanism, avalanche, tsunami and cloud bursts. Prediction of hazards and mitigation of their impacts.


Unit-V: Energy and Environment

Sun as source of energy; solar radiation and its spectral characteristics. Fossil fuels: classification, composition, physico-chemical characteristics and energy content of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Shale oil, Coal bed Methane, Gas hydrates. Gross-calorific value and net-calorific value. Principles of generation of hydro-power, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, wind power, geothermal energy, solar energy (solar collectors, photo-voltaic modules, solar ponds). Nuclear energy – fission and fusion, Nuclear fuels, Nuclear reactor – principles and types. Bioenergy: methods to produce energy from biomass.

Environmental implications of energy use; energy use pattern in India and the world, emissions of CO2 in developed and developing countries including India, radiative forcing and global warming. Impacts of large scale exploitation of solar, wind, hydro and nuclear energy sources.


Unit-VI: Environmental Pollution and Control

Air Pollution:

Sources and types of Pollutants – Natural and anthropogenic sources, primary and secondary pollutants. Criteria air pollutants. Sampling and monitoring of air pollutants (gaseous and particulates); period, frequency and duration of sampling. Principles and instruments for measurements of (i) ambient air pollutants concentration and (ii) stack emissions. Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Impact of air pollutants on human health, plants and materials. Acid rain. Dispersion of air pollutants. Mixing height/depth, lapse rates, Gaussian plume model, line source model and area source model. Control devices for particulate matter: Principle and working of: settling chamber, centrifugal collectors, wet collectors, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitator. Control of gaseous pollutants through adsorption, absorption, condensation and combustion including catalytic combustion. Indoor air pollution, Vehicular emissions and Urban air quality.


Noise Pollution:

Sources, weighting networks, measurement of noise indices (Leq, L10, L90, L50, LDN, TNI). Noise dose and Noise Pollution standards. Noise control and abatement measures: Active and Passive methods. Vibrations and their measurements. Impact of noise and vibrations on human health.


Water Pollution:

Types and sources of water pollution. Impact on humans, plants and animals. Measurement of water quality parameters: sampling and analysis for pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, hardness, chlorides, salinity, DO, BOD, COD, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals and organic contaminants. Microbiological analysis – MPN. Indian standards for drinking water (IS:10500, 2012). Drinking water treatment: Coagulation and flocculation, Sedimentation and Filtration, Disinfection and Softening. Wastewater Treatment: Primary, Secondary and Advanced treatment methods. Common effluent treatment plant.


Soil Pollution:

Physico-chemical and biological properties of soil (texture, structure, inorganic and organic components). Analysis of soil quality. Soil Pollution control. Industrial effluents and their interactions with soil components. Soil micro-organisms and their functions – degradation of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers.


Thermal, Marine Pollution and Radioactive:

Sources of Thermal Pollution, Heat Islands, causes and consequences. Sources and impact of Marine Pollution. Methods of Abatement of Marine Pollution. Coastal management. Radioactive pollution – sources, biological effects of ionizing radiations, radiation exposure and radiation standards, radiation protection.


Unit-VII: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

Solid Waste – types and sources. Solid waste characteristics, generation rates, solid waste components, proximate and ultimate analyses of solid wastes. Solid waste collection and transportation: container systems – hauled and stationary, layout of collection routes, transfer stations and transportation. Solid waste processing and recovery – Recycling, recovery of materials for recycling and direct manufacture of solid waste products. Electrical energy generation from solid waste (Fuel pellets, Refuse derived fuels), composting and vermicomposting, biomethanation of solid waste. Disposal of solid wastes – sanitary land filling and its management, incineration of solid waste. Hazardous waste – Types, characteristics and health impacts. Hazardous waste management: Treatment Methods – neutralization, oxidation reduction, precipitation, solidification, stabilization, incineration and final disposal. e-waste: classification, methods of handling and disposal. Fly ash: sources, composition and utilisation. Plastic waste: sources, consequences and management.


Unit-VIII: Environmental Assessment, Management and Legislation

Aims and objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP). EIA Guidelines. Impact Assessment Methodologies. Procedure for reviewing EIA of developmental projects. Life-cycle analysis, cost-benefit analysis. Guidelines for Environmental Audit. Environmental Planning as a part of EIA and Environmental Audit. Environmental Management System Standards (ISO14000 series). EIA Notification, 2006 and amendments from time to time. Eco-labeling schemes. Risk Assessment – Hazard identification, Hazard accounting, Scenarios of exposure, Risk characterization and Risk management. Overview of Environmental Laws in India: Constitutional provisions in India (Article 48A and 51A). Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amendments 1991, Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Indian Forest Act, Revised 1982, Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 amended 1988 and Rules 1975, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 amended 1987 and Rules 1982, Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules 1986, Motor Vehicle Act, 1988, The Hazardous and Other Waste (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, The e-waste (Management) Rules 2016, The Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016, The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical (Amendment) Rules, 2000, The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2010 with Amendments, The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Rules 1991, Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000, Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) 1991 amended from time to time. National Forest Policy, 1988, National Water Policy, 2002, National Environmental Policy, 2006. Environmental Conventions and Agreements: Stockholm Conference on Human Environment 1972, Montreal Protocol, 1987, Conference of Parties (COPs), Basel Convention (1989, 1992), Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (1971), Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro, 1992, Agenda-21, Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Convention on Biodiversity (1992), UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, 1997, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Earth Summit at Johannesburg, 2002, RIO+20, UN Summit on Millennium Development Goals, 2000, Copenhagen Summit, 2009. IPCC, UNEP, IGBP.


Unit-IX: Statistical Approaches and Modelling in Environmental Sciences

Attributes and Variables: types of variables, scales of measurement, measurement of Central tendency and Dispersion, Standard error, Moments – measure of Skewness and Kurtosis, Basic concept of probability theory, Sampling theory, Distributions – Normal, log-normal, Binomial, Poisson, t, 2 and F-distribution. Correlation, Regression, tests of hypothesis (t-test, 2-test ANOVA: one-way and two-way); significance and confidence limits. Approaches to development of environmental models; linear, simple and multiple regression models, validation and forecasting. Models of population growth and interactions: Lotka-Voltera model, Leslie’s matrix model.


Unit-X: Contemporary Environmental Issues

Global Environmental Issues – Biodiversity loss, Climate change, Ozone layer depletion. Sea level rise. International efforts for environmental protection. National Action Plan on Climate Change (Eight National missions – National Solar Mission, National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, National Water Mission, National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, National Mission for a ‘Green India’, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change). Current Environmental Issues in India: Environmental issues related to water resource projects – Narmada dam, Tehri dam, Almatti dam, Cauvery and Mahanadi, Hydro-power projects in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal and North-Eastern States. Water conservation-development of watersheds, Rain water harvesting and ground water recharge. National river conservation plan – Namami Gange and Yamuna Action Plan. Eutrophication and restoration of lakes. Conservation of wetlands, Ramsar sites in India. Soil erosion, reclamation of degraded land, desertification and its control. Climate change – adaptability, energy security, food security and sustainability. Forest Conservation – Chipko movement, Appiko movement, Silent Valley movement and Gandhamardhan movement. People Biodiversity register. Wild life conservation projects: Project tiger, Project Elephant, Crocodile Conservation, GOI-UNDP Sea Turtle project, Indo-Rhino vision. Carbon sequestration and carbon credits. Waste Management – Swachha Bharat Abhiyan. Sustainable Habitat: Green Building, GRIHA Rating Norms. Vehicular emission norms in India. Epidemiological Issues: Fluorosis, Arsenocosis, Goitre, Dengue. Environmental Disasters: Minnamata Disaster, Love Canal Disaster, Bhopal Gas Disaster, 1984, Chernobyl Disaster, 1986, Fukusima Daiichi nuclear disaster, 2011.